Vitamins and MineralsIron Profile

Iron Profile

Iron Profile

Junio 25, 2020

Vitamins and Minerals

What is an Iron Profile?

An iron profile includes several markers that help us identify iron deficiency. Iron is an essential mineral in the formation of Hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is the protein that transports oxygen to the tissues inside the red blood cells.

If our body do not have enough iron, the following will happen:

  1. Less hemoglobin is formed; Fewer red blood cells are produced;

  2. Smaller red blood cells are produced.

The iron profile study includes the following tests:

  • Iron in blood: measures the amount of free iron in blood. May be affected by recent intake of iron through diet or supplement.

  • Transferrin: Transferrin is the protein that transports iron to red blood cells or body iron stores.

  • Transferrin saturation: measures the percentage of transferrin that is occupied by iron

  • Ferritin: Ferritin is the protein that stores iron in the liver and spleen. Its decrease indicates iron deficiency.

For more information about iron and pregnancy specifically, click here.

Why is this analysis important?

An iron panel is often included in a general health check because iron deficiency is one of the most common reasons behind fatigue. Iron deficiency can also be associated with weakness, sleeping problems and hair loss.

It is especially common for women of child-bearing age to suffer from iron deficiency, since women lose a certain amount of blood and iron every month due to menstruation. It is estimated that as high as 20 percent of women under 50 years old do not have enough iron in their body.

Iron deficiency is also more common in vegetarians and vegans since meat is an important source of iron. However, it is still possible to get enough iron from whole grain, nuts, dried fruits, green leafy vegetables and fortified cereals.

In some rare cases, a genetic disorder called hemochromatosis can be detected with an iron profile. This is a disorder where too much iron builds up in your body, also called “iron overload” and is more common in male and people of Northern European descent. Having too much iron can also lead to fatigue, and many also suffer from joint pain.

In short, it is useful to perform an iron profile in the blood to:

Identify iron deficiency

Identify iron overload

Monitor cases of iron deficiency anemia and its response to treatment

Results

The reference ranges for the markers in an iron profile can be different depending on the laboratory and technique used. Sex and age can also affect the reference ranges. Doctors usually also take into account a number of factors when evaluating an iron profile. The following markers can be decreased in the presence of iron deficiency:

  • Hemoglobin

  • Hematocrit

  • Total red blood cell count

  • Mean corpuscular volume (MCV)

  • Transferrin saturation

  • Ferritin

Iron deficiency may be caused by the following mechanisms:

  • Bleeding

  • - From an obvious source, for example heavy menstruation, bleeding hemorrhoids or surgery)

  • - From a hidden source, for example bleeding from the digestive tract

  • Decreased absorption of iron

  • - Iron malabsorption (as in Celiac disease, chronic gastritis or following gastric surgeries)

  • - Diet low in iron (such as a vegetarian or vegan diet)

  • Increased need of iron (such as during pregnancy)

Other Considerations

The iron level in the blood fluctuates depending on recent iron intake via diet or supplement. Ferritin, which measures the body’s long-term iron storage is therefore a better marker for long-term iron deficiency. However, ferritin levels can increase under inflammatory states, such as arthritis or even a common cold. This is the opposite of transferrin, which decreases under inflammatory states. Intake of large quantities of alcohol can also greatly increase ferritin levels.

Iron deficiency without any obvious reason should be further investigated by a doctor as hidden bleeding sources, such as bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract could be present.

Women planning pregnancy can require more iron than normal because the growth of the unborn baby drastically increases the body’s demand for iron and the women’s iron stores are often close to depleted at the end of a pregnancy.

References

Causes and diagnosis of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in adults. Stanley L Schrier, MD, Michael Auerbach, MD, UpToDate Apr 02, 2019

Patient education: Anemia caused by low iron (The Basics). UpToDate Apr 17, 2019.

Patient education: Anemia caused by low iron in adults (Beyond the Basics). Stanley L Schrier, MD, Michael Auerbach, MD, UpToDateApr 09, 2019.